The lathe is an ancient tool, dating at least to ancient Egypt and known and used in Assyria and ancient Greece. A lathe is a machine tool which is an important tool in the field of mechanical engineering. Which rotates the workpiece on lathe axis to perform various operations such as, facing, turning, cutting, drilling, knurling, etc. Lathes are used inmetalworking , metal spinning, woodturning, Thermal spraying/ parts reclamation, and glass-working. Most suitably equipped metalworking lathes can also be used to produce most solids of revolution, plane surfaces and screw threads or helices. Ornamental lathes can produce three-dimensional solids of incredible complexity. The material can be held in place by either one or two centers, at least one of which can be moved horizontally to accommodate varying material lengths. Other work-holding methods include clamping the work about the axis of rotation using a chuck or collet, or to a faceplate, using clamps or dogs.
The origin of turning dates to around 1300 BC when the Ancient Egyptians first developed a two-person lathe. One person would turn the wood work piece with a rope while the other used a sharp tool to cut shapes in the wood. Ancient Rome improved the Egyptian design with the addition of a turning bow. In the Middle Ages a pedal replaced hand-operated turning, freeing both the craftsman’s hands to hold the woodturning tools. The pedal was usually connected to a pole, often a straight-grained sapling. The system today is called the “spring pole” lathe. Spring pole lathes were in common use into the early 20th century.
During the Industrial Revolution, mechanized power generated by steam engine or water wheels was transmitted to the lathe via line shafting, allowing faster and easier work. Metalworking lathes evolved into heavier machines with thicker, more rigid parts. Between the late 19th and 20th centuries, individual electric motors replaced line shafting as the power source. Beginning in the 1950s, servomechanism were applied to the control of lathes and other machine tools via numerical control, which often was coupled with computers to yield computerized numerical control. Today manually controlled and CNC lathes coexist in the manufacturing industries.
Lathe identified by its specifications. specifications are Length of Bed, Width of bed, Height of Center , Swing over Slide , Swing in Gap , Admit Between Centers , Spindle Hollow , Type of Bed , Type of Bed , T.P.I. of Lead Screw, Hp. Required.